uber ride Alexander Torrenegra/Wikimedia Commons

¿Uber es una amenaza para la democracia?

AIX-EN-PROVENCE – Cada mes de julio, economistas, líderes empresarios, ONGs y políticos de todo el mundo se reúnen en Aix-en-Provence, Francia, para la conferencia Encuentros Económicos que dura tres días y es organizada por el Círculo de Economistas. El foro de este año se centró en la naturaleza cambiante del trabajo. El momento en que tuvo lugar la reunión, que coincidió con un encendido debate en Francia sobre el innovador servicio Uber que permite compartir coche, no podría haber sido más oportuno.

Sin duda, el tema del foro se eligió en parte en respuesta a los temores de que los avances tecnológicos se terminen traduciendo en un desempleo generalizado, conforme las máquinas se tornan lo suficientemente avanzadas como para reemplazar a los seres humanos en la realización de una creciente cantidad de tareas. Como señaló Andrew McAfee del MIT, históricamente, las revoluciones tecnológicas "generaron más empleos, aunque diferentes ", pero, con máquinas que se vuelven cada vez más inteligentes, "esta vez puede ser diferente".

Frente a esta posibilidad, sugiere McAfee, quizá necesitemos reconstruir nuestras sociedades de manera que, en tanto las máquinas inteligentes aumentan la productividad, la demanda menguante de mano de obra humana tenga resultados que mejoren el bienestar, como ingresos más elevados (y distribuidos más equitativamente) y más tiempo de ocio. No es el único: John Maynard Keynes predijo esta posibilidad hace 85 años.

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