uber ride Alexander Torrenegra/Wikimedia Commons

Является ли Uber угрозой для демократии?

ЭКС-АН-ПРОВАНС – Раз в год в июле экономисты, лидеры бизнеса, представители НКО и политики со всего мира собираются в городе Экс-ан-Прованс во Франции на трехдневный форум Rencontres Économiques («Экономические встречи»), организуемый ассоциацией Cercle des Économistes. В этом году темой форума стала меняющаяся природа труда. Лучшее время для такой встречи трудно было найти – она совпала с жаркими дебатами во Франции по поводу инновационного сервиса транспортных услуг Uber.

Без сомнения, тема форума была выбрана отчасти из-за страхов, что технологический прогресс приведет к широкомасштабной безработице: машины станут настолько совершенными, что смогут заменить человека в выполнении всё большего числа задач. Как подчеркнул Эндрю Макафи из Массачусетского технологического института, ранее технологические революции «приводили так или иначе к увеличению числа рабочих мест, хотя и нового качества», однако машины становятся всё более умными, поэтому «на этот раз всё может быть по-другому».

Учитывая это, Макафи предположил, что нам, возможно, придется перестроить наше общество. Причем таким образом, чтобы, по мере того как умные машины наращивают производительность, падение спроса на человеческий труд приводило к расширению благосостояния, например, в форме более высоких (и более равномерно распределенных) доходов и увеличения свободного времени. Макафи не одинок: Джон Мейнард Кейнс предсказывал такую возможность 85 лет назад.

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