La nouvelle trajectoire de la Turquie

CHICAGO – La Turquie a récemment été au premier plan des discussions économiques et politiques internationales. Malgré la crise économique qui frappe l’Europe voisine, la Turquie reste la deuxième économie mondiale à la croissance la plus rapide, après la Chine. De plus, il n’y a pratiquement aucun point de l’ordre du jour mondial – de l’Irak à l’Afghanistan et la Somalie, du printemps arabe et du développement durable au dialogue entre civilisations – auquel la Turquie ne participe de manière appréciable.

Cette conjoncture est relativement nouvelle. Il y a seulement dix ans, la Turquie était surtout perçue comme rien de plus qu’un allié indéfectible de l’Otan. La situation a commencé à évoluer en 2002, avec l’avènement d’une période de stabilité politique qui a permis l’émergence de l’idée d’une Turquie plus forte – et d’un ferme engagement à concrétiser cette vision.

À cette fin, les gouvernements turcs successifs ont depuis 2002 mis en œuvre des réformes économiques audacieuses qui ont ouvert la voie à une croissance durable et protégé le pays de la crise financière qui a débuté en 2008. En moins d’une décennie, le PIB a triplé, plaçant la Turquie au seizième rang mondial en termes de sa puissance économique. Le pays bénéficie en outre de finances publiques saines, d’une politique monétaire prudente, d’une dynamique durable de la dette publique, d’un système bancaire en bonne santé et de marchés du crédit efficaces.

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