President Trump addresses the UN Alexander Shcherbak/Getty Images

特朗普的联合国托辞

发自丹佛——美国总统特朗普在联合国大会上的首次发言将以其奇谈怪论和对几个国家的描述(“邪恶的”朝鲜,“杀人”的伊朗,和“腐败”的古巴和委内瑞拉)而被记录在案。同时除了指名道姓地挑战几个不守规矩的成员国之外,特朗普还为他的“美国优先”议程大肆辩护。

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虽然特朗普特别挑选的词汇对联合国来说相当新鲜,他的论点却还是老一套。他指出,其他国家也把自己的国家利益放在第一位(这有一定道理)。他还重申了美国的外交决策界一直以来的抱怨,认为要美国纳税人承担联合国总预算的22%是过分且不公平的。

在呼吁大会发挥自身作用去实施并强制执行对朝鲜的制裁后,特朗普说了一句:“让我们看看他们会怎么做。”但是把联合国称为“他们”则意味着这个事情仿佛跟美国无关。特朗普的口气像是一个不满房东未能合理修缮住宅的租客。然而联合国居住在这个房子的人们共同构建的,不仅仅是美国一家。

特朗普在演讲中列举了美国对世界的诸多贡献,并认为是美国维持着联合国以便为其他有需要的国家提供一个国际论坛平台。他觉得美国不应承担对联合国的命运,失败甚至成就的责任。但除了为联合国预算捐款超过任何其他国家外,美国在该机构内也扮演了超乎寻常的角色。美国可以因此将联合国许多成绩归功于自身;但它也应当为许多失败负责。

值得记住的是,没有联合国秘书长可以在缺乏美国支持的情况下就任。同时作为联合国安理会常任理事国,美国对联合国的任何行动,包括制裁,部署维和部队以及发布对其他成员国的正式谴责都拥有否决权。即使联合国的大型机构官僚机构有时候会有点尾大不掉,但其执行效力最终会取决于其最具影响力的成员。

以1990年代初的波斯尼亚冲突为例,当时安理会决定只派出联合国维和部队,而不是按照《联合国宪章》第七章所允许的方式部署更强大的多边武装。而为维和部队贡献了大部分兵力的英国和法国坚持要首先获得一个维持和平任务的授权才采取行动,因为它们不想让自己的部队卷入冲突。

美国方面则拒绝提供任何部队,因此没有权利去要求获得一个更强有力的任务授权以利联合国部队介入并终结当地的暴力形势。虽然许多美国人都在自家的电视上目睹了大屠杀并希望联合国能做更多的事情来加以阻止,但他们以及他们的领导人——首先是老布什然后是克林顿——都没有兴趣去让美军成为波斯尼亚维和部队的一部分。正如我们随后看到的那样,杀戮持续进行,甚至有时就当着联合国维和部队的面,因为他们的国家没有给予足够的授权去干涉。

当美国领导的《代顿协定》在1995年12月结束战争时,联合国的维和能力已经被彻底唾弃,只得派遣北约的战斗部队去联合国保护部队。换句话说,当形势需要战斗人员时派出了维和人员;当形势要求维和人员时却派出了战斗人员。这种明显的运作失调与联合国无关,而是联合国成员国决策的直接结果。

即便特朗普的反乌托邦和暴躁言论也承认联合国通过维和行动及其他形式的援助为世界和平作出了宝贵的贡献。通常情况下,这项工作是在遥远的国家完成的,且美国的直接参与又是令许多美国政治家的选民难以接受的。

联合国远非完美。但是与其对此大加抨击,美国领导人(从特朗普开始)应该明白,它的行动和决定往往就是自己的延伸。

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