Trump supporter Mark Makela/Getty Images

Ist der liberale Internationalismus tot?

MEDFORD – In diesem Monat vor einhundert Jahren zermarterte sich US-Präsident Woodrow Wilson den Kopf, ob die USA in den Ersten Weltkrieg eintreten sollten oder nicht. Nur wenige Monate zuvor war Wilson im Amt bestätigt worden, und zwar teilweise, weil er im Wahlkampf unter dem Motto „America first“ eine Politik der Neutralität versprochen hatte, die aufzugeben er sich nun vorbereitete. Nun jedoch hat erstmals in über 80 Jahren ein US-Präsident dieses Motto wieder aufgenommen und vertritt eine Außenpolitik, die im direkten Widerspruch zu der Doktrin steht, die Wilson damals übernahm.

Es war erst 1919, nach Kriegsende, das Wilson seine außenpolitische Vision des „liberalen Internationalismus“ definierte: Unterstützung für kollektive Sicherheit und die Förderung offener Märkte zwischen Demokratien, reguliert durch ein System multinationaler Institutionen, das letztlich von den USA abhängig war. Obwohl der US-Senat Wilsons Vision, insbesondere seine Unterstützung für den Beitritt zum Völkerbund, zunächst ablehnte, erweckte Franklin D. Roosevelt nach 1933 den liberalen Internationalismus erneut zum Leben. Und dieser Internationalismus hat seitdem die Außenpolitik der meisten US-Präsidenten mitbestimmt – bis Trump.

Der von Trump vertretene „America first“-Ansatz umfasst eine Geringschätzung der NATO, Verachtung für die Europäische Union und Spott für Deutschlands Führungsrolle in Europa. Er enthält zudem die Ablehnung wirtschaftlicher Offenheit, die sich in Trumps Rückzug aus dem Transpazifischen Partnerschaftvertrag widerspiegelt, und ruft nach einer Neuverhandlung des Nordamerikanischen Freihandelsabkommens (NAFTA). Trump hat zudem zugesichert, er würde aus dem Pariser Klimavertrag aussteigen.

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