El camino a la recuperación de posguerra

Para los países avanzados del mundo, un desafío clave consiste en ampliar la inclusión económica y social sin disminuir el dinamismo económico que ya tienen. Los problemas de los países devastados por la guerra son mucho más agudos y sus opciones, mucho más limitadas. De hecho, enfrentan un doble desafío: crear economías dinámicas y promover, al mismo tiempo, la inclusión económica y social. Sin estos dos elementos, la reconciliación nacional probablemente resulte imposible.

La exclusión social en los países industrializados impone a toda la sociedad costos que los estrategas políticos deben abordar con medidas efectivas y focalizadas. La falta de empleos, por ejemplo, suele alejar a la gente del trabajo, especialmente a los jóvenes, y la hace caer en la dependencia de las drogas y el delito. La sociedad, entonces, necesita pagar el costo de las políticas de prevención del delito y de la administración de justicia.

Un mercado laboral flexible, como muchos sugieren, no promoverá por sí mismo la inclusión. Los programas de asistencia social en los países devastados por la guerra suelen agravar el desempleo al reducir los incentivos laborales y crear una cultura de la dependencia. Las leyes de salarios mínimos y los acuerdos laborales por lo general consiguen que los empleadores que cumplen con la ley no puedan acceder a los trabajadores menos productivos. De manera que lo que estos países necesitan son más oportunidades de empleo y mayores salarios en el sector privado para estos trabajadores.

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