El Premio Nóbel y el fantasma de Einstein

El próximo 10 de diciembre se cumplirá el centésimo aniversario de la primera vez en que se otorgaron los Premios Nóbel. Desde entonces han sido objeto de gran interés y controversias.

Alfred Nóbel murió el 10 de diciembre de 1896. Cuando se abrió su testamento, se descubrió que había donado su considerable riqueza para la creación de los premios que llevan su nombre. Se mencionaban cinco premios: física, química, fisiología o medicina, literatura y paz. Se nombraba también a cuatro instituciones para que los otorgaran: la Real Academia Sueca de las Ciencias (para los de física y química), el Karolinska Institutet (para el de fisiología o medicina), la Academia Sueca (para el de literatura) y un grupo designado por el parlamento noruego, que después se llamó ''Comité Noruego para el Nóbel'' (para el de la paz). Así, Suecia y Noruega quedaron unidas.

Desde la creación de los Premios Nóbel, se han entregado más de 650 medallas y diplomas en las áreas originales. El Banco de Suecia creó, en 1968, un premio de ciencias económicas en conmemoración de Alfred Nóbel. La mayoría de estos premios tienen que ver con logros científicos, obras maestras de la literatura e intentos por lograr la paz en un siglo violento.

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