Die moralische Verwundbarkeit der Märkte

LONDON: Es scheint, heute, keine kohärente Alternative zum Kapitalismus zu geben, doch sind die marktfeindlichen Gefühle gesund und munter und kommen etwa in der moralistischen Gegenreaktion auf die Globalisierung zum Ausdruck. Da ohne moralische Grundlage kein gesellschaftliches System lange überleben kann, drängen die von den Globalisierungsgegnern aufgeworfenen Probleme – umso mehr angesichts der derzeitigen Wirtschaftskrise.

Es ist schwer, dem Markt einen gewissen moralischen Wert abzusprechen. Schließlich verknüpfen wir mit Prozessen wie mit Resultaten moralische Bedeutung, was etwa in der Wendung zum Ausdruck kommt, „der Zweck heilige nicht die Mittel“. Es ist moralisch besser, Waren durch freie Arbeiter liefern zu lassen als durch Sklaven und Waren selbst auszuwählen, statt sie sich vom Staat vorschreiben zu lassen. Die Tatsache, dass Marktsysteme effizienter sind bei der Schaffung von Wohlstand und der Befriedigung von Bedürfnissen als jedes andere System, ist ein zusätzlicher Bonus.

Die moralische Kritik gegenüber dem Markt konzentriert sich auf seine Tendenz, einen moralisch unzulänglichen Charaktertypus zu bevorzugen, unangenehme Motive zu privilegieren und unerwünschte Ergebnisse zu fördern. Außerdem mangele es dem Kapitalismus an einem Gerechtigkeitsprinzip.

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