Paul Lachine

“Конец истории” пришел в Тунис

ПАРИЖ. “Жасминовая революция” в Тунисе все еще разворачивается, но мы уже можем усвоить уроки по демократии и демократизации, значение которых простирается далеко за пределы Магриба.

Чтобы представить Жасминовую революцию в исторической перспективе, мы должны вспомнить 4 июня 1989 года – то важное воскресенье, когда поляки проголосовали против коммунистов во власти и, на другом конце Евразии, коммунистическая партия Китая сокрушила расцветающее демократическое движение на площади Тяньаньмэнь. В ретроспективе этот день выглядит как развилка на дороге человеческой истории. Одна тропа привела к отречению от коммунизма и новому рождению свободы и демократии – иногда кровавому и болезненному – в Европе. Другая дорога повела по альтернативному курсу, Китай остался под контролем своей руководящей партии, но обеспечил процветание своим доведенным до нищеты массам благодаря удивительному и продолжительному экономическому росту.

Когда происходила революция в 1989 году, Фрэнсис Фукуяма пророчески, но с оговорками размышлял, предвещает ли выбранный Европой путь “конец истории”. Следуя Гегелю, Фукуяма выдвигал убедительные доводы о том, что история является направляющей – то есть ведущей куда-либо – по двум причинам. Во-первых, непрерывное распространение технологий и экономического либерального порядка, который имеет гомогонезирующий эффект. Во-вторых, гегельянская “борьба за признание” была доминирующей движущей силой человечества, достаточно мощной, чтобы привести бесчисленных индивидуумов к решающей жертве.

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