La révolution des ressources

SAN FRANCISCO – Le monde est sur le point de connaître la plus grande opportunité commerciale des cent dernières années et qui soutient la comparaison avec à la fois la première révolution industrielle, qui a transformé la productivité du travail, et la seconde, qui a mobilisé des sommes sans précédent pour la construction des villes. La nouvelle révolution est axée sur le troisième facteur primaire de la production : les ressources naturelles.

Cette révolution arrive à point nommé. Après des siècles de gaspillage, que ce soit au plan de la production ou de la consommation – rendu possible par une baisse constante du prix des matières premières, de 0,7 pour cent par an en temps de paix au cours du dernier siècle – il est grand temps que les producteurs et les consommateurs puissent, grâce à de nouvelles technologies, tirer un meilleur parti des ressources disponibles.

Cette évolution est d’autant plus urgente que l’extraction des ressources devient de plus en plus coûteuse, avec des sites d’exploitation qui présentent des difficultés logistiques, et souvent politiques. Dans le même temps, les niveaux de pollution de l’air, de l’eau et des sols ne cessent d’augmenter en Chine, en Inde, en Indonésie, au Brésil et dans d’autres pays émergents.

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