Communist party members lay flowers at Stalins grave Natalia Kolesnikova/Getty Images

Die Sowjetunion ist endgültig tot

MOSKAU – Am letzten Silvesterabend vor genau 25 Jahren hat sich die Sowjetunion formal aufgelöst. Aber obwohl dies ein Grund zum Feiern zu sein scheint, wird es von vielen Russen – und auch einigen Bürgern des Westens – zwiespältig gesehen.

An der Spitze der Zweifler steht der russische Präsident Wladimir Putin. 2005 wurde seine Meinung zur Auflösung der UdSSR klar, als er sie „eine der großen geopolitischen Tragödien des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts“ nannte. Und einige Westbürger betrachten die neuen Staaten, die aus dem Zusammenbruch entstanden – insbesondere die Ukraine und die baltischen Länder – als Hauptquelle des russischen Ressentiments und Revanchismus in der Ära nach dem Kalten Krieg.

Diese Zweifel stehen in scharfem Kontrast zu dem Konsens, der nach dem Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus in Europa zwischen 1989 und 1991 viele Jahre lang herrschte. Man war sich einig, dass das Ende des Kalten Krieges nicht nur die Befreiung Zentral- und Osteuropas zur Folge hatte, sondern auch den Triumph liberaler Ideen.

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