Come prevenire un eventuale disastro legato alla disuguaglianza

NEW HAVEN – Lo straordinario, e molto discusso, libro di Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, ha focalizzato l’attenzione sul problema dell’aumento della disuguaglianza economica. Il testo non dà, tuttavia, delle soluzioni importanti. Come ammette lo stesso Piketty, la sua proposta, ovvero un’imposta globale progressiva sul capitale (o sul benessere), “richiederebbe un livello molto elevato e poco realistico di cooperazione internazionale.”

In questo contesto, è importante non focalizzarsi su soluzioni rapide. La preoccupazione maggiore per i policy maker a livello globale è prevenire eventuali disastri, ovvero gli eventi anomali maggiormente rilevanti e, dato che la disuguaglianza tende a modificarsi in tempi molto lenti, un eventuale disastro potrebbe accadere solo tra diversi decenni.

Questo disastro eventuale, ovvero un ritorno ai livelli di disuguaglianza registrati l’ultima volta tra la fine del diciannovesimo e l’inizio del ventesimo secolo, è ampiamente descritto nel libro di Piketty. In questo scenario, una piccola minoranza deterrebbe la ricchezza, tendenzialmente non per una particolare intelligenza o per aver lavorato più duramente degli altri, ma per una ridistribuzione bizzarra dei redditi da parte delle forze economiche di base.

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