建设安全的海岸

帕萨迪纳—2011年,日本东北地震和海啸摧毁了日本的沿海地区。去年,飓风桑迪掀起的滔天巨浪吞噬了美国东海岸的低洼地带,特别是在纽约州和新泽西州。这些灾难事件凸显全球沿海地区在引发严重风暴潮(增高沿岸海水深度)和巨浪的极端天气事件面前的脆弱性。

飓风桑迪在袭击美国时已退化为热带气旋,但其风圈仍覆盖了方圆1800公里,掀起了极端风暴潮,摧毁了泽西海岸,夷平了居民区,毁掉了当地经济赖以生存的赌场和游步道。在曼哈顿南端的炮台公园,风暴潮高度达到了4.2米,洪水吞噬了家园和企业,令数百万人陷入黑暗。潮水也达到了极端高度,纽约港附近的一个航标测得的极端潮高达到了10米(从波谷到波峰)。

七年前,三级飓风卡特里娜摧毁了美国墨西哥湾沿岸。风暴潮达到了7—10米,洪水吞噬距离海岸20公里的内陆,墨西哥湾沿岸一片狼藉,至今仍未彻底复原。1989年,飓风雨果在南加州查尔斯顿(Charleston)附近登陆,掀起了近4米高的风暴潮。类似的案例还有很多。

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