La Palestine, ou l’État manqué

Chaque semaine, semble-t-il, voit la Palestine faire un nouveau pas en arrière. L’incapacité du président Mahmoud Abbas à réunir l’Assemblée législative palestinienne suite au boycott du Hamas pourrait inexorablement entraîner l’effondrement définitif des structures politiques nées des Accords d’Oslo. Malheureusement, ce n’est là que le dernier chapitre de l’histoire tragique des tentatives palestiniennes pour créer un État-nation.

Les Palestiniens voient leur histoire comme une lutte contre le sionisme et Israël. Cependant, la réalité est plus compliquée et marquée par des échecs répétés à créer une entité politique cohérente, même lorsque des opportunités historiques se présentaient.

Le premier a sans doute eu lieu dans les années 1920, lorsque le gouvernement britannique alors mandataire en Palestine encouragea les deux communautés nationales – Juifs et Arabes – à établir des institutions communautaires autonomes pour prendre en charge l’éducation, les aides sociales, le logement et l’administration locale.

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