David Cameron number10gov/Flickr

Dobří lidé, špatný úsudek

NEW YORK – Vidkun Quisling, norský válečný fašistický vůdce, jehož jméno se stalo synonymem kolaborace se zlem, bydlel s manželkou v dosti grandiózní vile nedaleko Osla. V této vile dnes sídlí Norské centrum pro výzkum holocaustu a náboženských menšin, což je hezká proměna poskvrněného místa.

Počátkem letošního roku jsem toto centrum navštívil, abych si prohlédl úchvatnou expozici věnovanou první ústavě nezávislého Norska, vyhlášené v roce 1814. Byl to pozoruhodně osvícený a pokrokový dokument, který sestavili vzdělaní učenci znalí historie, práva a filozofie. Někteří byli experty na řeckou antiku, jiní na starou hebrejštinu, ale všichni patřili k zapáleným čtenářům Kanta a Voltaira.

Ve zmíněné ústavě však existuje jedna neobvyklá klauzule: článek II prohlašuje svobodu vyznání v luteránském státě, ovšem s výhradou, že „Židé budou mít stále zakázáno vstupovat do Říše“. Toto ustanovení bylo už tehdy zvláštní. Napoleon, který ve stejném roce utrpěl porážku, totiž zajistil Židům na dobytých územích občanská práva. A krátce předtím, než se klauzule stala součástí norského práva, udělil dánský král Židům ve své říši občanství.

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