跨过普京经济时代

莫斯科——德米特里·梅德韦杰夫当选俄国新总统几乎已成定局。但他五月继任后能否改善俄国的经济状况却远没有那样确定。

有一点可以肯定,弗拉基米尔·普京政府似乎留给了俄国经济一片光明的未来。经济增长在1999到2008年平均达到了7.2%。外汇储备一直保持在国内生产总值的30%,从绝对数量看居于世界第三位。股票市场已经上涨了20倍之多。中产阶级正在购买外国轿车,出国渡假和去寿司店用餐,而民意调查则显示生活满意度已经普遍有所提高。

俄国的经济成功应该部分归功于高企的石油和商品价格。但石油也并非俄国经济的全部。2001年的税制改革刺激了民众的工作积极性,通过实行13%的固定所得税率有效地降低了逃税行为——13%的税率是全世界最低的所得税率之一。其他措施还包括放开企业注册和申领执照的手续,限制审查,改善小企业和企业主的生存环境。保守的宏观经济政策和金融行业改革降低了利率,推动了投资和消费的繁荣景象。民众的实际收入达到原来的三倍,而贫穷和失业现象则降低了一半。

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