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Un globalismo más peligroso

PRINCETON – “Estados Unidos primero”, insiste Donald Trump. “Gran Bretaña primero”, dicen los partidarios del Brexit. “Francia primero”, alardea Marine Le Pen con su Frente Nacional. “Rusia primero”, proclama el Kremlin de Vladimir Putin. Con tanto acento puesto en la soberanía nacional, hoy la globalización parece terminada.

Pero no es así. La batalla que se desarrolla hoy no es entre globalismo y antiglobalismo; más bien, el mundo está suspendido entre dos modelos de integración: uno es multilateral e internacionalista; el otro, bilateral e imperialista. Dos extremos entre los que ha oscilado a lo largo de toda la edad moderna.

Después de 1945 dominó el internacionalismo, partidario de la cooperación y la promoción mediante instituciones multilaterales de bienes públicos globales como la paz, la seguridad, la estabilidad financiera y la sostenibilidad medioambiental. El modelo internacionalista limita la soberanía nacional, al supeditar los estados al cumplimiento de normas, convenciones y tratados comunes.

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