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okumu1_CRISTINA ALDEHUELAAFPGetty Images_malariaworker Cristina Aldehuela/AFP/Getty Images

疟疾正在卷土重来吗?

达累斯萨拉姆—人们常说,蚊子是地球上最危险的动物,因为它们所传播的疾病——包括疟疾、登革热和寨卡——每年都会造成一百多万人死亡。但减轻这些威胁的战略仍然远不足够。

以疟疾为例,据世界卫生组织,2017年其传染人数超过2亿,死亡435,000人。在20世纪40年代以前,抗疟疾策略主要有三个:加强环境管理,改善居住条件,以及强化卫生体系。针对疟疾传播机制(在100多年前首次发现),公共卫生当局聚焦于遏制疟蚊的繁殖,人类对疟蚊的暴露,以及合适的医疗手段的普及。

采用这一方针的国家实现了巨大的进步——并且大部分都摆脱了疟疾。比如,美国疟疾死亡率在1920年至1939年间下降了75%。

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