Madonna et les enfants d’Afrique

D’habitude, Madonna fait seulement les gros titres des tabloïds. Mais son adoption d’un petit garçon du Malawi, orphelin de mère et dont le père agriculteur n’a pas les moyens de le nourrir, a noirci les pages d’opinion de journaux sérieux. Sa décision a mis le Malawi, pays souvent touché par les pénuries de vivres et les famines saisonnières, sur le devant de la scène.

Le Malawi et d’autres pays font actuellement l’objet d’une expérience d’importance vitale, consistant à augmenter les rendements agricoles afin que les fermiers nécessiteux n’aient pas à abandonner et à faire adopter leurs enfants. Ces dernières années, les attitudes des gouvernements africains à l’égard de l’agriculture ont radicalement changé. Les dirigeants africains faisaient autrefois la promotion de l’industrialisation au détriment de l’agriculture et se désintéressaient totalement des simples fermiers. Ils manifestent désormais un nouveau respect envers ceux qui labourent la terre, après avoir pris conscience du fait que le moyen le plus rapide de sortir les gens ordinaires de l’extrême pauvreté est d’augmenter les rendements et le prix de vente des récoltes.

Toutefois, parvenir à ce que les fermiers se lancent dans les bonnes cultures et accroissent leurs rendements est plus facile à dire qu’à faire : ils n’ont pas les moyens d’acheter les éléments de base, comme l’engrais, et n’ont pas non plus les connaissances nécessaires. Les gouvernements africains n’ont malheureusement pas réussi à leur enseigner les méthodes améliorées.

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