El déficit educacional de América Latina

La decisión de China de poner fin a su política de atar el yuan al dólar, que había mantenido por una década, ha sido saludada en América Latina con entusiasmo y optimismo. En todo el continente se argumenta que un tipo de cambio más flexible para el yuan reducirá la injusta ventaja de China en los mercados internacionales. Esto, se nos dice, hará que las exportaciones latinoamericanas de bienes manufacturados sean más competitivas en el ámbito internacional.

Este optimismo está fuera de lugar. A pesar de las reformas anunciadas, es poco probable que haya alguna flexibilidad significativa del tipo de cambio en la moneda china. De hecho, los gobernantes de China ya han manifestado que el nuevo sistema de tipo de cambio se orientará a mantener la estabilidad de la moneda. Su política está diseñada a semejanza de la de Singapur, que ha evitado grandes fluctuaciones cambiarias y ha mantenido durante los últimos tres años un tipo de cambio bastante más competitivo que la totalidad de los países de América Latina.

Esto significa que, para competir con éxito con China, los países latinoamericanos necesitarán aumentar su productividad. Lamentablemente, el continente no se encuentra bien posicionado para estos desafíos.

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