Déficit éducatif en Amérique latine

La décision chinoise de mettre fin à une politique vieille de dix ans rattachant sa devise au dollar américain a été accueillie avec enthousiasme et optimisme en Amérique latine. On pense, à travers tout le continent, qu’un taux de change plus flexible du yuan réduira l’avantage injuste dont jouissait la Chine sur les marchés internationaux. Cela, nous dit-on, permettra une meilleure compétitivité internationale à l’exportation de la production industrielle d’Amérique latine

Mais cet optimisme est déplacé. Malgré les réformes annoncées, il est peu probable qu’il se produise un changement significatif dans la flexibilité du taux de change de la devise chinoise. En effet, les dirigeants chinois ont déjà déclaré que le nouveau système de taux de change visera au maintien de la stabilité de la devise. Leur politique est conçue selon celle de Singapour, qui a évité de grandes fluctuations de devises, tout en maintenant un taux de change extrêmement plus compétitif ces trois dernières années que celui de tous les pays d’Amérique latine.

Cela signifie que pour concurrencer la Chine avec succès, les pays d’Amérique latine devront augmenter la croissance de leur productivité. Malheureusement, le continent n’est pas bien placé pour relever tous ces défis.

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