Brazil flag river climate change Global Environment Facility/Baljit Wadhwa/Flickr

La vanguardia climática latinoamericana

SANTIAGO – Es posible que Latinoamérica haya capeado la desaceleración del crecimiento económico mundial pero, para muchos, el posible impacto del calentamiento global y de las medidas necesarias para evitar lo peor de sus efectos puede socavar el frágil equilibrio político, económico y social de la región, y desandar años de avances.

Pero la prosperidad económica y las acciones para mitigar el cambio climático no tienen por qué ser mutuamente excluyentes. De hecho, el actual ciclo electoral latinoamericano, junto con la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático (que tendrá lugar en diciembre, en Lima, Perú) proporcionan una oportunidad para que la región muestre cómo los países pueden beneficiarse de una economía con bajas emisiones de carbono, reducir los riesgos climáticos y crear prosperidad a largo plazo.

Los países latinoamericanos no empiezan de cero. La mayoría de sus gobiernos ya están diseñando políticas y redactando legislación sobre el cambio climático. México fue el primer país emergente en aprobar una ley integral sobre el cambio climático, en 2012, con el objetivo de reducir para 2020 el 30 % las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. Brasil recientemente logró disminuir la deforestación amazónica y las emisiones netas de dióxido de carbono han caído significativamente gracias a ello. Uruguay planea generar el 90 % de su electricidad a partir de fuentes renovables en 2015, mientras que Chile busca hacer lo propio con el 20 % de su consumo eléctrico para 2025.

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