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不平等性降临亚洲

首尔—从中国到印度,近几十年来亚洲国家的高速经济扩张让数亿人摆脱了贫困。但最近,收入分配出现恶化,如今亚洲的不平等性甚至比西方发达经济体还要严重

从1990年到2012年,中国净基尼系数——衡量(税收和转移支付后)收入不平等性的常用指标——从0.37大幅上升至0.51(零代表完全品更,一代表完全不平等)。印度净基尼系数也从0.43上升到0.48。即使是此前“平等地”增长的“亚洲四小龙”——香港、新加坡、韩国和台湾——最近也面临不平等性上升的局面。比如,韩国顶层10%所得到的收入占比从1995年的29%升高到2013年的45%。

不平等性恶化趋势背后的推动力量,正是近几十年来推动亚洲经济增长的力量:高歌猛进的全球化和技术进步。日益开放的边境让企业更容易寻找最便宜的地方开展业务。特别是,中国进入全球市场给其他地区的低技能生产工人造成了工资压力。

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