Haushaltspoltische Torheiten in Indien

NEW DEHLI – Der neue indische Haushaltsplan für die Jahre 2008 und 2009 sagt weniger über die gegenwärtige finanzielle Situation des Landes aus, als über den unwiderstehlichen Drang der indischen Regierungen, den nationalen Haushaltsplan als Lenkungsinstrument in Vorwahlzeiten zu benutzen. Jedes Jahr kämpft Indien darum, das Unmögliche möglich zu machen, nämlich gleichzeitig Wirtschaftswachstum und Investitionen anzukurbeln, die endemische Armut zu lindern und den unersättlichen Appetit des Militärs zu stillen. Die Regierung muss sich als Anwalt des „aam aadmi“, des gewöhnlichen Bürgers (der wählt) präsentieren und gleichzeitig die Ansprüche der Geschäftswelt befriedigen (die die Wirtschaft in Gang hält).

Tatsächlich erweist sich der in Vorwahlzeiten erstellte neue Haushaltsplan als Goldgrube für die wichtigsten Wählerschichten: Steuersenkungen für den Mittelstand und Vergünstigungen für die großen Konzerne des Landes. Aber es ist für jeden etwas dabei, einschließlich einer umfassenden Amnestie im Wert von 15 Milliarden Dollar für Kleinbauern, die ihre Kredite nicht zurückzahlen können.   

Während in den letzten Jahren die Einzelhandelsrevolution, die Leistungsfähigkeit in der Informationstechnologie und der boomende Produktionsbereich Indiens im Mittelpunkt standen, befindet sich die Landwirtschaft, von der noch immer 70 Prozent der Bevölkerung direkt abhängig sind, in der Krise. Das Wachstum des landwirtschaftlichen Sektors in Indien fiel von dürftigen 3,8 Prozent auf anämische 2,6 Prozent im letzten Jahr.

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