Government of India Sajjad Hussain/Stringer

Por qué la India debe deshacerse de la democracia parlamentaria

NUEVA DELHI – El sistema parlamentario indio, heredado de los británicos, está plagado de ineficiencias. Según la lógica de Westminster, se elige una legislatura para formar el ejecutivo, y cuando el ejecutivo no manda una mayoría segura en la asamblea legislativa, el gobierno cae, provocando nuevas elecciones. El resultado es una votación en una u otra de las 29 asambleas estatales de la India cada seis meses aproximadamente, en la que cada una actúa como una especie de referéndum sobre el gobierno en Nueva Delhi. En resumen, la democracia multipartidista de la India se ha convertido en un plebiscito perenne.

La última ronda de elecciones de la India incluyó cinco asambleas estatales. El partido gobernante Bharatiya Janata (BJP) del primer ministro Narendra Modi prevaleció en Uttar Pradesh, el estado más grande de la India, que alberga a más de 200 millones de personas y ha producido siete de los 15 primeros ministros, y en la vecina Uttarakhand. El principal partido de oposición, el Congreso Nacional de la India, triunfó en el estado de Punjab, en el noroeste, y ganó plazas en Goa y Manipur (aunque el BJP formó gobiernos en estos últimos dos estados de todos modos, formando coaliciones para asegurar las mayorías legislativas).

Parece un resultado mixto. Pero la política nacional de la India ha estado sesgada hacia el norte del país, que habla hindi, y Uttar Pradesh tiene mucho más votantes que los otros cuatro estados combinados. Así que los resultados han sido aclamados como una victoria para el BJP, afirmando la popularidad de Modi y reivindicando su liderazgo, incluyendo el de la campaña en sí.

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