La triplicidad de la desigualdad

LAGUNA BEACH – En las recién concluidas reuniones anuales del Fondo Monetario Internacional y del Banco Mundial, hubo no pocas desconexiones. Una de las más destacadas fue la disparidad entre el interés de los participantes en los debates sobre la desigualdad y la falta actual de un plan de acción oficial para que los gobiernos la aborden. Se trata de un fallo grave de la imaginación política... y que se debe abordar urgentemente.

Hay buenas razones para la intensificación del interés. Si bien la desigualdad ha desminuido entre los países, ha aumentado dentro de ellos, tanto en los países en desarrollo como en los desarrollados. Ese proceso ha sido impulsado por una combinación de cuestiones estructurales y persistentes, incluidos el cambio de naturaleza de los avances tecnológicos, el aumento de las características inversoras como la de que “el que gana se lo lleva todo” y los sistemas políticos que favorecen a los adinerados, y con las fuerzas cíclicas ha adquirido proporciones propias de turbocompresores.

En el mundo desarrollado, la raíz del problema es una polarización política sin precedentes, que ha impedido reaccionar de forma exhaustiva y ha hecho recaer una carga política excesiva en los bancos centrales. Aunque las autoridades monetarias gozan de más autonomía política que los otros organismos encargados de la formulación de políticas, carecen de los instrumentos necesarios para abordar eficazmente los imperativos que afrontan sus países.

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