swan lake Brendon Thorne/Getty Images

How Culture Shapes Human Evolution

Scientists have lately confirmed that other animals do not possess hidden reasoning powers and cognitive complexity. This raises a fundamental question: How could something as extraordinary and unique as the human mind have evolved?

ST. ANDREWS – Is there an evolutionary explanation for humanity’s greatest successes – technology, science, and the arts – with roots that can be traced back to animal behavior? I first asked this question 30 years ago, and have been working to answer it ever since.

Plenty of animals use tools, emit signals, imitate one another, and possess memories of past events. Some even develop learned traditions that entail consuming particular foods or singing a particular kind of song – acts that, to some extent, resemble human culture.

But human mental ability stands far apart. We live in complex societies organized around linguistically coded rules, morals, and social institutions, with a massive reliance on technology. We have devised machines that fly, microchips, and vaccines. We have written stories, songs, and sonnets. We have danced in Swan Lake.

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