Jak zajistit popularitu evropské integrace

Obavy z globalizace a odpor k integraci napříč Evropskou unií vedly k rozsáhlým politickým důsledkům, včetně zkrachovalého francouzského a nizozemského referenda o unijním návrhu Ústavní smlouvy a faktického moratoria na přístupové rozhovory s Tureckem. Evropská rada i komise bezmocně události sledují, jako by záležitost nebyla v jejich rukou.

Konvenční názor tvrdí, že neschopnost EU vypořádat se s výzvami integrace plyne ze ztuhlosti hospodářských struktur a neadekvátního lidského kapitálu – tedy ze slabých stránek, jež mohou účinně řešit jedině národní politiky, kde Unie hraje jen malou roli. Avšak významné přelévání politik uvnitř EU je důvodem k posílení koordinace politik zaměřených na reformu pracovního trhu a sociálního zabezpečení.

Zastaralá pravidla na trhu práce jsou klíčovým důvodem, proč se plně nezhmotnily přínosy vnitřního trhu a měnové unie. Strnulost trhu práce – především ve Francii, Německu a Itálii – brání adaptaci na sílící konkurenci integrujících se trhů. Ti, kdo přijdou o pracovní místo, si kvůli vstupním bariérám nedokáží najít nové, přičemž vysoká míra dlouhodobé nezaměstnanosti vyvolává pocit ohrožení u těch, kdo práci mají. Vzhledem k tomu, že obě tyto skupiny pohlížejí se znepokojením na imigranty a integraci vnitřního trhu, otočily se k Evropě zády.

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