Anadolu Agency/Jakarta

Une brève histoire des (in)égalités

BERKELEY – L'économiste de BerkeleyBarry Eichengreen a dernièrement fait un discours à Lisbonne sur les inégalités, en témoignant de l'une des vertus d'être un spécialiste en histoire économique. Eichengreen, comme moi, se glorifie de la complexité de chaque situation, en évitant la simplification dans la recherche de la clarté conceptuelle. Cette disposition se caractérise par une impulsion à tenter d'expliquer davantage de choses sur le monde, par rapport à ce que nous pourrions finalement en connaître selon un modèle simple.

Pour sa part, en ce qui concerne les inégalités, Eichengreen a identifié six processus de premier ordre à l'œuvre au cours des 250 dernières années.

Le premier est l'élargissement de la distribution des revenus de la Grande-Bretagne entre 1750 et 1850, lorsque les bénéfices de la Révolution industrielle britannique sont allés à la classe moyenne urbaine et rurale, mais pas aux pauvres urbains et ruraux.

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