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L’autre déficit de la Grèce

OAKLAND – Au cours de la dernière décennie, les finances publiques grecques ont fait l’objet d’une attention soutenue. Et lors de l’examen des progrès accomplis par la Grèce dans la voie des réformes, réalisé en novembre dernier dans le cadre de l’accord conclu avec ses bailleurs de fonds – condition préalable à une prolongation du programme d’aide – son déficit budgétaire a une nouvelle fois été passé au crible.

Mais les Grecs seraient bien avisés de tenir compte d’une autre sorte de déficit qui, s’il a moins fait l’objet d’un débat public, pourrait avoir des conséquences économiques tout aussi graves. Comme le reste de la région Méditerranée (et en fait le monde entier), la Grèce n’accuse pas seulement un déficit budgétaire, mais également un déficit écologique.

D’après notre analyse, les pays du pourtour de la Méditerranée utilisent actuellement des ressources et des services écologiques deux fois et demi supérieurs au taux de renouvellement de leurs écosystèmes. La Grèce aurait par exemple besoin des ressources et services écologiques équivalents à trois fois ceux de la Grèce pour répondre aux besoins de ses citoyens en aliments, bois, fibres, logements, infrastructures urbaines et séquestration de carbone. La ville d’Athènes consomme à elle seule 22 pour cent de plus que les ressources fournies par l’écosystème de tout le pays. Et après des années de récession durant lesquelles les pressions sur les ressources naturelles du pays ont diminué, la tendance de la demande est repartie à la hausse, comme le reflète la légère croissance du PIB.

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