Realismo para la energía en el mundo

MADRID – Hoy la energía ha ganado centralidad en la formulación de políticas globales. Al tiempo que la caída del precio del petróleo acapara titulares en todo el mundo, el presidente estadounidense Barack Obama y el presidente chino Xi Jinping firman un acuerdo clave sobre el cambio climático, y las conclusiones del pasado Consejo Europeo de octubre podrían marcar un avance real hacia una política energética juiciosa de la UE. Este impulso debe conservarse en el próximo año, y culminar en la Conferencia de Naciones Unidas sobre Cambio Climático (COP21) que tendrá lugar en París en diciembre.

Sin embargo, para establecer un sistema global de energía que cubra la creciente demanda dentro de los imperativos de la neutralidad-carbono, debemos evitar las trampas que han lastrado iniciativas pasadas. En particular, hemos de encontrar el equilibrio adecuado entre ideología y realismo, entre los sectores público y privado, así como tener en cuenta las consideraciones a corto y largo plazo. Además, es esencial traducir nuestros compromisos en acciones.

En la pugna entre ideología y realismo, la UE encarna quizás el mejor ejemplo de un enfoque desequilibrado. Y es que los europeos tienden a liderar con el corazón en lugar de con la cabeza, lo que socava la efectividad de sus acciones. El rechazo visceral e irreflexivo a la utilización de la energía nuclear por parte de algunos países miembro ha repercutido en un fuerte aumento en el consumo del carbón, mientras que el uso de energías renovables, al margen de su eficacia o viabilidad, ha sido alentado con devoción. Y el objetivo "20/20/20 en 2020" de la UE –reducción en un 20% en las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, aumento en un 20% de la contribución de las energías renovables al mix enérgetico, e incremento en un 20% de la eficiencia energética, todo ello para 2020 – tiene más de mantra que de verdadera política.

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