Al Estado eficaz, lo que es suyo

MADRID – El triunfo de la democracia y la economía de mercado que la caída del Muro de Berlín consideraba inevitable -el "Fin de la historia" de la famosa expresión acuñada por el filósofo político estadounidense Francis Fukuyama-, no tardó en revelarse poco más que un espejismo. Sin embargo, después de la pirueta intelectual de China, que mantiene un Estado de partido único al tiempo que abraza el credo capitalista, los intérpretes de la historia centraron su atención en la economía: no todo el mundo sería libre para elegir su Gobierno, pero la prosperidad capitalista se impondría en todo el mundo.

No obstante, en la actualidad el revuelo económico que sacude Europa, la erosión de la clase media occidental y las crecientes desigualdades sociales que se aprecian en el mundo están minando las pretensiones de triunfo universal del capitalismo. Se plantean preguntas difíciles: ¿está condenado el capitalismo tal como lo conocemos?, ¿acaso el mercado ya no puede generar prosperidad?, ¿es el capitalismo de cuño chino una alternativa y un paradigma potencialmente victorioso?

El examen de conciencia desatado por estas preguntas nos ha hecho ver que los éxitos del capitalismo no solo dependen de las políticas macroeconómicas y los indicadores económicos, sino que se asientan en el buen gobierno y el Estado de derecho; dicho de otro modo, en un Estado eficaz. Mientras luchaba contra el comunismo, Occidente pasó por alto este asunto clave.

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