Rendre à l’État performant ce qui lui est dû

MADRID – Le triomphe de la démocratie et de l’économie de marché – ou la « fin de l’Histoire », selon le concept notoire avancé par le philosophe politique américain Francis Fukuyama – qui devait inévitablement intervenir avec la chute du Mur de Berlin, s’est rapidement révélé n’être rien de plus qu’un mirage. Cependant, confrontés au tour de passe-passe intellectuel de la Chine consistant à maintenir un régime de parti unique tout en adoptant le credo capitaliste, les historiens se sont davantage intéressés à l’économie : tous les humains ne seraient pas nécessairement libres d’élire leur gouvernement, mais la prospérité capitaliste s’étendrait au monde entier.

Aujourd’hui pourtant, les difficultés économiques de l’Europe, l’érosion des classes moyennes occidentales et les inégalités sociales croissantes partout dans le monde sapent la revendication de triomphe universel du capitalisme. Des questions difficiles sont posées : le capitalisme tel que nous le connaissons est-il condamné ? Les marchés ne sont-il plus en mesure de générer la prospérité ? Le capitalisme d’État de la Chine est-il une alternative et un modèle potentiellement gagnant ?

L’examen de conscience généralisé induit par ces questions s’est traduit par une reconnaissance croissante du fait que le succès du capitalisme ne dépend pas seulement de la politique macroéconomique ou des indicateurs économiques. Il repose sur une fondation caractérisée par la bonne gouvernance et l’État de droit – en d’autres termes, sur un État qui fonctionne correctement. Les pays occidentaux ont négligé l’importance fondamentale de ce constat dans leur lutte contre le communisme.

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