3D Printed machine parts

Façonner la Quatrième Révolution industrielle

GENÈVE – Parmi les innombrables défis auxquels le monde fit face aujourd'hui, le plus accablant concerne peut-être la manière de façonner la Quatrième Révolution industrielle qui a débuté au tournant du siècle. Les nouvelles technologies et les nouvelles approches font fusionner les mondes physiques, numériques et biologiques d'une manière qui va transformer fondamentalement l'humanité. L'étendue plus ou moins positive de cette transformation va dépendre de notre manière de naviguer entre les risques et les opportunités qui se présenteront en chemin.

La Quatrième Révolution industrielle s'appuie sur la Troisième Révolution industrielle, également connue sous le nom de Révolution numérique, celle qui a entraîné la prolifération des ordinateurs et l'automatisation de l'archivage des données. Mais la nouvelle vague de transformation diffère des précédentes par quelques traits caractéristiques. Premièrement, les innovations n'ont jamais été mises au point ni diffusées aussi rapidement. Deuxièmement, la baisse des coûts marginaux de production et la montée des plates-formes qui agrègent et concentrent l'activité dans plusieurs secteurs augmentent les rendements d'échelle. Troisièmement, cette révolution mondiale va affecter (et sera façonnée par) tous les pays et aura un impact systémique dans de nombreux domaines.

La Quatrième Révolution industrielle a le potentiel d'émanciper les individus et les communautés, car elle crée de nouvelles opportunités pour le développement économique, social et personnel. Mais elle peut également conduire à la marginalisation de certains groupes, exacerber les inégalités, créer de nouveaux risques de sécurité et saper les relations humaines.

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