Women cycling in Odense Tim Graham/Getty Images

De l’analyse économique à la croissance inclusive

WASHINGTON, DC – La plupart des économies sont à la recherche d'une recette pour la croissance économique inclusive, permettant d’obtenir des taux élevés d'investissement, une innovation rapide et de forts gains de PIB, tout en poursuivant en parallèle des mesures visant à réduire les inégalités de revenus. Les conservateurs insistent sur le fait que la croissance exige des impôts bas et des incitations comme une flexibilité du marché du travail pour encourager l'esprit d'entreprise. Or, la réduction des inégalités exige des niveaux de dépenses publiques et de fiscalité plus élevés (sauf si le gouvernement utilise le déficit budgétaire pour stimuler l’économie déprimée).

Le modèle économique scandinave est souvent invoqué comme une solution à cette contradiction. Le système danois de « flexicurité », en particulier, a depuis toujours généré une solide performance économique aux côtés de faibles inégalités. D’éminents économistes tels que Philippe Aghion ont publié d’excellentes analyses sur la façon dont ce modèle pourrait équilibrer croissance, égalité et satisfaction globale des citoyens ailleurs dans le monde.

Ces économistes soutiennent que des marchés du travail qui imposent peu de restrictions à l'embauche et au licenciement, de faibles taxes sur l'entrepreneuriat et de généreuses incitations à l'innovation sont compatibles avec une répartition des revenus relativement uniforme, des dépenses sociales élevées par les gouvernements et des politiques sociales égalitaires telles que l'éducation universelle gratuite.

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