Faire Verträge für arme Länder

Eine Anzahl von Ländern in Lateinamerika, Afrika, Osteuropa und andernorts setzt derzeit Verträge mit multinationalen Unternehmen (MNUs) aus oder verhandelt sie nach, und weitere dürften folgen. Die Kosten dafür können hoch sein. Vielleicht erhalten diese Regierungen bessere Konditionen, doch können sie auch in internationale Investmentkontroversen verwickelt werden und andere Anleger verschrecken. Für die Unternehmen bedeuten Nachverhandlungen Unsicherheit und mögliche Unterbrechungen der Produktion und der Ertragsflüsse.

Deutliche Änderungen von Machtverhältnissen (normalerweise infolge sich ändernder Rohstoffpreise) und Ideologien oder Änderungen bei der Wirtschaftlichkeit von Projekten können zu Nachverhandlungen führen, insbesondere dort, wo Großinvestitionen in natürliche Ressourcen und Infrastruktur betroffen sind. Häufig jedoch ist der Grund, dass das Gastgeberland den betreffenden Vertrag als unfair ansieht.

Auch wenn „Fairness“ durchaus eine Sache des Betrachtungsstandpunkts sein mag: In einigen Fällen verfügten Gastgeberländer nicht über die erforderliche Expertise, um ein bestmögliches Geschäft auszuhandeln – eine häufige Situation, wenn MNUs mit den am wenigsten entwickelten Ländern verhandeln (den 50 weltärmsten Ländern, von denen die meisten in Schwarzafrika liegen). Mittals Geschäftsabschluss mit Liberia aus dem Jahre 2005 (im letzten Jahr nachverhandelt) und verschiedene Verträge mit dem Kongo fallen vermutlich zumindest teilweise in diese Kategorie, und dasselbe gilt für einige Geschäfte in Ländern der ehemaligen Sowjetunion.

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