Escapar de la trampa de los combustibles fósiles

MILÁN – Los combustibles fósiles plantean muchos problemas. Son caros y constituyen una causa de inestabilidad política y de la oferta. Al aumentar el consumo mundial, los costos relacionados con ellos probablemente experimenten un marcado aumento. Lo peor de todo es que entrañan costos insostenibles en emisiones de carbono. De hecho, su contribución al aumento de los niveles de CO2 en la atmósfera está empezando a eclipsar los demás problemas.

Pero la utilización de los combustibles fósiles y, por tanto, el aumento de las emisiones de CO2, parecen  ir a la par con el crecimiento. Ése es el problema fundamental que afronta el mundo, cuando intenta crear un marco para luchar contra el cambio climático. En comparación con los países avanzados, ahora el mundo en desarrollo tiene a un tiempo pocos ingresos de capital por persona y bajos niveles de emisiones de carbono por habitante. Imponer restricciones estrictas al aumento de sus emisiones impediría el crecimiento de su PIB y reduciría gravemente su capacidad para salir de la pobreza.

El mundo en desarrollo tiene también una seria objeción que hacer a la falta de equidad que supondría obligarlo a pagar por la mitigación del cambio climático. Los países avanzados son responsables colectivamente de gran parte de la acumulación actual de carbono en la atmósfera, además de una participación importante (aunque se está reduciendo) en las emisiones anuales del mundo. A consecuencia de ello los países avanzados deben reconocer –como sostienen los representantes del mundo en desarrollo– su responsabilidad por ese problema.

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