Echapper au piège des énergies fossiles

MILAN – Il y a de nombreux problèmes avec les énergies fossiles. Elles sont couteuses et sont volatiles, à la fois politiquement et en termes d’approvisionnement. Elles sont consommées de plus en plus dans le monde ce qui entrainera une hausse importante des coûts associés. Mais surtout, elles entrainent des coûts importants et non viables en termes d’émissions de carbone. En fait, dans la mesure où elles contribuent à élever les niveaux de CO2 dans l’atmosphère, elles contribuent à éclipser d’autres problèmes.

Mais il semble que l’utilisation d’énergies fossiles, et donc l’augmentation d’émissions de CO2, vont de pair avec la croissance. C’est le problème essentiel auquel le monde est confronté au moment où il est question de définir un cadre pour combattre le changement climatique. Comparé aux pays développés, les pays émergents ont des revenus par habitants et des émissions par habitant faibles. Leur imposer de sévères restrictions sur leurs émissions mettrait un frein à la croissance de leur PIB et à leur capacité à se sortir de la pauvreté.

Les pays émergents sont aussi tout à fait justifiés dans leur refus de contribuer à payer pour atténuer le changement climatique. Les pays développés sont collectivement responsables pour la majeure partie des stocks de carbone dans l’atmosphère, ainsi que pour une part significative (même si elle est diminue) des émissions annuelles de la planète. En conséquence, les responsables des pays émergents estiment que les pays développés devraient assumer la responsabilité de ce problème.

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