columbian soldier Luis Acosta | Stringer via getty images

Faire la paix en Colombie

BOGOTA – Les Colombiens s’apprêtent à mettre un terme au plus ancien et au dernier conflit de l’hémisphère occidental. Après plus de cinq ans de négociations avec les FARC (Forces armées révolutionnaires de Colombie), nous pouvons dire que nous avons atteint une phase irréversible qui verra la fin d’une guerre de plus de cinquante ans, cruelle et coûteuse.

Tous mes prédécesseurs au cours des cinq dernières décennies ont tenté de faire la paix avec les FARC, la plus importante et la plus ancienne armée de guérilla qui ait vu le jour en Amérique latine. Tous ont échoué. Pourquoi donc ce processus de paix a-t-il pu aboutir ?

C’est avant tout un processus bien préparé et soigneusement exécuté qui s’engagea lorsque certaines conditions furent remplies. Nous devions infléchir, en premier lieu, le rapport de force militaire en faveur de l’État colombien. En deuxième lieu, il nous fallait convaincre les dirigeants des FARC qu’il était dans leur intérêt personnel d’entamer des négociations sérieuses et qu’ils n’atteindraient jamais leurs objectifs par la violence ni par la poursuite de la guérilla.

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