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La evidencia sobre las reformas educativas

DHAKA – Existe un consenso prácticamente universal de que más educación es algo bueno para la sociedad. Pero resulta que algunas políticas educativas populares arrojan muy pocos resultados, mientras que otras que suelen subestimarse pueden marcar una gran diferencia.

Reducir el tamaño de las clases parecería ser una mejora obvia, pero no está demostrado que un tamaño menor de las aulas, en sí mismo, estimule el desempeño educativo. De la misma manera, extender el día escolar parece ser una manera fácil de asegurar que los alumnos aprendan más, pero la investigación sostiene que el tiempo que se pasa en la escuela importa considerablemente menos que lo que sucede allí.

Y la nueva investigación realizada para el Centro de Consenso de Copenhague, el grupo de expertos que dirijo, resalta el hecho paradójico de que equipar las aulas con más libros de texto o computadoras tampoco es una fórmula milagrosa. Como parte de un proyecto que busca las opciones de políticas más inteligentes para Bangladesh, Atonu Rabbani de la Universidad de Dhaka muestra que la enseñanza respaldada por tecnología tiene resultados variados. Ofrecerles a los alumnos computadoras tuvo cierto impacto en la India, pero poco en Colombia. En Estados Unidos, la introducción de computadoras ha sido, inclusive, perjudicial cuando no estaba acompañada por una supervisión paterna y una orientación por parte de los maestros.

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