protests in France Aurelien Meunier/Getty Images

Frenar el avance del populismo

MADRID – Los populismos, con sus autoproclamadas victorias sobre las élites, coinciden en señalar a la globalización como la causa de los problemas que sufren los ciudadanos. Sus discursos están especialmente dirigidos a quienes, en los últimos años, han visto descender su nivel de vida y se han sentido ajenos a los procesos globales, de los que otros parecían beneficiarse. Es cierto que estos agravios no han sido la única chispa que ha encendido el movimiento anti-globalización, y prueba de ello es que también ha calado en países con bajas tasas de desempleo y salarios crecientes, pero el debate ocupa la actualidad y no debemos ignorarlo.

En primer lugar, porque no hay duda de que el apoyo a estos partidos sigue creciendo y, de no hacer nada, podemos encontrarnos con importantes retrocesos en nuestras sociedades. En segundo lugar, porque debemos dar una respuesta a quienes se han sentido abandonados por las clases políticas. La estupefacción que nos provoca pensar que Donald Trump o Marine Le Pen puedan gobernar debe ser la llamada de atención ante una cuestión pendiente: la creciente desigualdad en nuestras sociedades.

La globalización ha supuesto la salida de muchos de la pobreza y la reducción de la desigualdad a nivel global, es decir, entre países. Como señala Branko Milanovic, estamos ante el primer descenso de la desigualdad global de los últimos doscientos años y en el momento de mayor restructuración de la renta personal desde la Revolución Industrial. En este período, quienes han visto aumentar sus ingresos han sido las clases medias y altas de los países asiáticos y las clases más altas, a nivel global. Esto ha llevado el aumento de la desigualdad dentro de los países. El ejemplo más evidente es el de Estados Unidos, donde el coeficiente de Gini (el índice que mide los niveles de igualdad) subió cinco puntos entre los años 1990 y 2013, pero también ha ocurrido en menor medida en China, India y en la mayoría de países europeos.

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