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驯服民粹主义份子

马德里——在众多西方民主国家,右翼民粹主义者在自封的对“体制精英”胜利的鼓舞下正在双倍下注,将很多民众问题的根源归结为全球化。对那些几十年来生活水平停滞不前甚至下滑的民众来说,即便政治领袖将自由贸易和资本流动奉为日臻繁荣的秘方,认为全球化损害很多人利益的观点仍颇具吸引力。因此我们必须正面解决这个问题。

当然,经济不满本身并不能催生反全球化情绪;即使低失业率和收入增长的国家也出现了民粹主义。但这样的不满提供了民粹主义领袖争取支持所需的内核,这些人惯用扭曲和夸张等手段来争取民众的支持。如果经济问题得不到改善,对上述领导人的支持率将继续上升,可能导致社会退回到不那么宽容——也不那么繁荣的——时代。

唐纳德·特朗普和马琳·勒庞等人在国内政治中获得立足点——更不要说领导机会——并非凭借他们自身之能。他们利用了民众的感情,很多民众认为在鼓吹全球化收益的同时坐视不平等上升到前所未有水平的政治阶层抛弃了他们。

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