À bas les droits de l'homme

Les relations entre les Nations Unies et le mouvement des droits de l'homme ont toujours été ambiguës. D'une part, l'idéologie des droits de l'homme – car c'est une idéologie, aussi sûrement que l'était le communisme ou que l'est aujourd'hui le néolibéralisme – est profondément légaliste, revendiquant sa légitimité par des traités et autres instruments nationaux et internationaux. Ceux-ci comprennent, en “premier parmi les égaux”, la Déclaration universelle des droits de l'homme de l'ONU de 1948. Le mouvement moderne de défense des droits de l'homme est né de l'ONU, et sous de nombreux aspects n'a jamais vraiment quitté le nid.

D'autre part, l'ONU est davantage une chaire tyrannique d'où sont promulgués de hauts idéaux sur les droits humains, l'égalité et la liberté personnelle et économique, qu'une étape sur le chemin d'un gouvernement mondial (qu'importe ce qu'imaginent certains conservateurs extrémistes aux États-Unis). Certes, en son noyau institutionnel, l'ONU est un corps intergouvernemental dont les fonctionnaires, du plus jeune employé au secrétaire général, travaillent au service des États-membres, et par-dessus tout, de ses États-membres puissants. La conséquence de cette profonde contradiction entre ambition et mandat est que l'ONU semble souvent entraver l'avancée des objectifs des droits de l'homme autant qu'elle les réalise.

Les sceptiques n'ont qu'à se remémorer  la mauvaise grâce de chaque secrétaire général après l'autre, de U Thant à Kofi Annan, à recevoir – parfois même à permettre l'accès aux sites de l'ONU – des victimes des violations des droits de l'homme qui avaient la malchance d'être nées dans des pays puissants. Malgré l'ampleur de l'engagement intellectuel de l'ONU dans l'élargissement des droits humains, elle se garde bien de provoquer l'ire des Chinois ou des Russes en recevant des activistes du Tibet ou de Tchétchénie.

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