Jeff Swensen/Stringer

La necesidad de un populismo constructivo

WASHINGTON, DC – El voto por el Brexit desató un vendaval de comentarios sobre la política anti-establishment, el fracaso de los expertos, la abdicación de la izquierda, etcétera. Visto al lado de la campaña presidencial en Estados Unidos, muchos consideran el Brexit una llamada de atención.

En respuesta, el exsecretario del Tesoro de los EE. UU. y expresidente de Harvard Larry Summers propone un “nacionalismo responsable” para contrarrestar el lenguaje a menudo chauvinista, antiinmigrante y proteccionista del populismo de derecha. El autor promueve una respuesta “en la que se entienda que la primera responsabilidad de los países es buscar el bienestar económico de sus ciudadanos, pero de modo tal que su capacidad de perjudicar los intereses de los ciudadanos de otros países esté circunscrita”. Deberíamos evaluar los acuerdos internacionales “no tanto por cuánto logran armonizar o cuántas barreras derriban, sino por su capacidad de empoderar a los ciudadanos”.

Como Summers y otros sostienen, la globalización trajo enormes beneficios a la economía mundial en su conjunto, pero los ganadores rara vez compensaron a los perdedores, directa o indirectamente. Además, últimamente los ganadores suelen ser muchos menos que los perdedores, particularmente dentro de un área geográfica dada o en mercados donde el ganador se queda con todo. Por último, las políticas económicas preferidas por los “ganadores” (y adoptadas bajo su influencia) distan de ser ventajosas para todos.

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