Nuclear energy Bloomberg/Getty Images

De nouvelles politiques pour une énergie propre

NEW YORK – Les diplomates ont accompli leur part de travail, en parvenant à conclure l’accord climatique de Paris au mois de décembre. Cet accord a été ratifié par les dirigeants politiques réunis la semaine dernière aux Nations Unies. La véritable difficulté réside désormais dans sa mise en œuvre. À cet égard, les gouvernements ont besoin d’une nouvelle approche autour de cette problématique extrêmement complexe, d’ampleur planétaire, et qui s’inscrit dans le long terme.

Le défi climatique consiste pour l’essentiel en un défi énergétique. Environ 80 % de l’énergie primaire mondiale provient de sources à base de carbone : charbon, pétrole et gaz. Au moment de leur combustion, ces sources d’énergie émettent du dioxyde de carbone, responsable du réchauffement climatique. D’ici à 2070, nous aurons besoin d’une économie mondiale à quasiment zéro émission de carbone, si nous entendons empêcher le réchauffement planétaire d’échapper dangereusement à notre contrôle.

L’accord de Paris admet cette nécessité fondamentale. Ce texte invite le monde entier à réduire ses émissions de gaz à effet de serre (notamment de CO2) jusqu’à un niveau net de zéro au cours de la seconde moitié du siècle. Dans cette perspective, les États sont chargés d’élaborer des plans non seulement d’ici à 2030 (les fameuses Contributions prévues et déterminées au niveau national, ou NDC), mais également pour la seconde moitié du siècle (appelés Stratégies de développement à faibles émissions, ou LEDS).

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