El nuevo modelo económico de China

El éxito de China desde que iniciara su transición a una economía de mercado se ha basado en estrategias y políticas flexibles: a medida que se soluciona cada conjunto de problemas, surgen otros nuevos para los que es necesario idear nuevas políticas y estrategias. Este proceso incluye una innovación social . China logró reconocer que no podía sencillamente transferir instituciones económicas que habían funcionado en otros países; al menos, lo que había funcionado en otras partes del planeta debía adaptarse a los problemas específicos que la nación enfrentaba.

Hoy China debate un “nuevo modelo económico”. Por supuesto, el modelo económico antiguo ha sido un éxito resonante, generando casi un 10% de crecimiento anual a lo largo de 30 años y sacando de la pobreza a cientos de millones de chinos. Los cambios son evidentes no sólo en las estadísticas, sino aún más en los rostros de la gente con que uno se cruza al recorrer diferentes zonas del país.

Hace poco visité una remota aldea Dong en las montañas de Quizho, una de las provincias más pobres de China, a kilómetros del camino pavimentado más cercano; sin embargo, tenía electricidad, y con ella no sólo había llegado la televisión, sino también la Internet. Si bien parte del aumento de los ingresos correspondía a remesas enviadas por miembros de la familia que habían migrado a ciudades de la costa, los campesinos también disfrutaban de una mejor situación, con nuevas cosechas y mejores semillas: el gobierno les vendía a crédito semillas de alta calidad con un índice garantizado de germinación.

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