El plan de juego de China en Afganistán

MADRID – En su último libro, On China, Henry Kissinger utiliza los tradicionales juegos intelectuales favoritos de China y Occidente -el weiqi y el ajedrez- como una manera de poder revelar las actitudes diferentes de estos países en materia de política de poder internacional. El ajedrez tiene que ver con una victoria total, una batalla clausewitziana por el "centro de gravedad" y la eventual eliminación del enemigo, mientras que el weiqi se basa en la búsqueda de una ventaja relativa a través de una estrategia de cerco que evita el conflicto directo.

Este contraste cultural es una guía útil para entender la manera en que China maneja su competencia actual con Occidente. La política afgana de China es un claro ejemplo, pero también es un desafío formidable para la estrategia del weiqi. Conforme Estados Unidos se prepara para retirar sus tropas del país, China debe lidiar con un escenario de posguerra incierto.

Afganistán representa un interés estratégico vital para China; sin embargo, a sus líderes nunca se les ocurrió defender esos intereses a través de la guerra. Afganistán no sólo es una zona de seguridad crítica para la región occidental de China, sino también un importante corredor a través del cual puede poner a salvo sus intereses en Pakistán (un aliado tradicional en la competencia de China con India) y asegurar su acceso a recursos naturales vitales en la región. Es más, la ya convulsionada provincia de Xinjiang, que es mayoritariamente musulmana y linda con Afganistán, podría resultar peligrosamente afectada si los talibán coparan el poder allí o el país se desmembrara.

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