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La Chine obnubilée par les droits de tirage spéciaux

WASHINGTON, DC – Le renminbi, monnaie nationale de la Chine, a intégré au début du mois d’octobre le panier des devises qui composent les droits de tirage spéciaux (DTS) du Fonds monétaire international. Jusqu’à présent, le DTS se définissait comme la moyenne pondérée du dollar, de l’euro, de la livre sterling et du yen japonais. Maintenant qu’il figure à ce panier de référence, le renminbi peut se targuer de compter parmi les cinq monnaies véritablement globales.

Quelle est l’importance de cet événement ? Pour les Chinois, elle est considérable. Le mois dernier, lors d’un déplacement à Pékin, j’ai moi-même pu constater combien cette entrée dans le club très fermé des devises composant les DTS était sur toutes les lèvres, et constituait presque l’unique sujet de conversation soulevé – la question Donald Trump ayant certes été également évoquée.

L’ajout du renminbi au panier du DTS était en effet une question d’honneur national. Il symbolise l’émergence de la Chine en tant que puissance mondiale. Cette intégration constitue également l’aboutissement des efforts du gouvernement visant à encourager l’utilisation du renminbi dans le cadre des transactions internationales, de sorte que la Chine et le reste du monde se libèrent de leur trop forte dépendance à l’égard du dollar.

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