Man installing photovoltaic panels

La révolution des énergies renouvelables

SYDNEY – Aux États-Unis et en Europe, les énergies renouvelables sont essentiellement perçues comme ayant des avantages environnementaux. Les énergies solaire et éolienne peuvent compenser le besoin de brûler des combustibles fossiles, contribuant ainsi à atténuer le changement climatique.

Mais en Chine et en Inde, les énergies renouvelables sont appréhendées sous un angle très différent. L’abandon relativement rapide des combustibles fossiles par ces deux pays n’est pas tant lié aux préoccupations climatiques qu’aux bénéfices économiques découlant des sources d’énergie renouvelable.

En fait, si les avantages économiques des énergies renouvelables peuvent présenter un attrait pour des économies avancées comme l’Allemagne et le Japon (qui s’affranchissent tous deux rapidement des combustibles fossiles), les avantages pour les puissances industrielles émergentes sont énormes. Pour la Chine et l’Inde, une trajectoire économique basée sur les combustibles fossiles pourrait signifier une catastrophe, parce qu’assurer un approvisionnement suffisant pour subvenir aux besoins de leurs immenses populations est source de tensions géopolitiques. Au-delà du fait qu’elle améliore la sécurité énergétique, une économie sobre en carbone encourage le secteur manufacturier national et la qualité de l’environnement localement, par exemple en réduisant le smog dans les villes.

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