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El sistema previsional chileno en aprietos

SANTIAGO – Los sistemas previsionales de prestaciones definidas están bajo presión. Los cambios demográficos entrañan problemas para los llamados sistemas de reparto, en los cuales las cotizaciones que hacen los trabajadores actuales financian las pensiones. Y las tasas de interés extremadamente bajas crean problemas para los sistemas de capitalización, en los cuales el rendimiento de las inversiones previas paga las jubilaciones. Hace poco, el Financial Timesse refirió a este asunto como "una crisis social y política que va en desarrollo".

Con frecuencia se alaba a los sistemas de cotizaciones definidas y capitalización plena por ser la alternativa más factible. A este respecto, se supone que el modelo es Chile, donde desde 1981 se requiere que los ciudadanos ahorren para su jubilación en cuentas individuales, administradas por compañías privadas. Sin embargo, últimamente, miles de chilenos se han lanzado a las calles para protestar contra las pensiones bajas. (El promedio que paga el sistema privado es de alrededor de US$300 al mes, monto inferior al salario mínimo en Chile).

El gobierno chileno, sintiendo la presión, se ha comprometido a realizar cambios en un sistema que ha sido imitado por países como Perú, Colombia y México, y que en algún momento George W. Bush describió como un "gran ejemplo" para la reforma del sistema de Seguridad Social de Estados Unidos. ¿Qué está sucediendo?

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